Behavioral change reduces risk of HIV infection and development of AIDS. We compared 206 inner-city women who were randomly assigned to a 4-session AIDS-prevention group or to one of two controls, a health-promotion group or a no-intervention group. AIDS-prevention and health-promotion groups provided information, behavioral competency training, and social support. Only the AIDS-prevention group focused on AIDS-specific knowledge and skills. The AIDS-prevention group produced moderate, consistent increases in knowledge and safer sex behaviors in comparison with either the health-promotion or no-intervention group. Self-report and objective changes were sustained 6 months after intervention for both African-American and European-American women.