Monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells and inflammatory bowel disease mucosa

Gastroenterology. 1995 Jan;108(1):40-50. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(95)90006-3.


Background: Monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) activates macrophages and increases the migration of monocytes into tissue during inflammation. It was hypothesized that MCP-1 expression is involved in intestinal inflammation.

Methods: MCP-1 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation. Biological activity of MCP-1 was assessed using a chemotactic assay. MCP-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

Results: In normal mucosa, MCP-1 was predominantly present in surface epithelium. In contrast, inflamed mucosa from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease contained multiple cells immunoreactive for MCP-1, including spindle cells, mononuclear cells, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, MCP-1 mRNA expression was markedly increased in inflamed intestinal biopsy specimens from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. MCP-1 was detected in isolated intestinal epithelial cells and in conditioned media from Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cell-conditioned media stimulated monocyte chemotaxis activity that was inhibited by anti-MCP-1 antibodies. Constituitive MCP-1 mRNA levels in Caco-2 cells were up-regulated by interleukin 1 beta and down-regulated by dexamethasone.

Conclusions: In addition to lamina propria macrophages, endothelial cells, and spindle cells, intestinal epithelial cells are able to produce MCP-1. MCP-1 is expressed constitutively in the intestinal colonic mucosa and is up-regulated during inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemotactic Factors / genetics*
  • Chemotactic Factors / metabolism
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Enteritis / metabolism
  • Gene Expression*
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / genetics*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology
  • Interleukin-1 / pharmacology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / pathology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / physiopathology*
  • Molecular Probes / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / metabolism
  • Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemotactic Factors
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-1
  • Molecular Probes
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate