All-trans retinoic acid therapy in relapsed/refractory or newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in Japan

Leukemia. 1994;8 Suppl 3:S64-9.

Abstract

We have conducted four prospective multicenter studies for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) using oral 45 mg/m2 all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) daily. The first three studies were for relapsed/refractory APL, and the fourth study for newly diagnosed APL. In the first study with ATRA alone, 18 (82%) of 22 evaluable patients achieved complete remission (CR). Initial peripheral leukemia cell counts were significantly less in the CR cases (p < 0.01); < 100/microliters in 17 of 18 CR cases, and > or = 200/microliters in all failure cases. In the second study, if initial leukemia cell counts were more than 200/microliters, chemotherapy with daunorubicin and behenoyl cytarabine was first given, and then ATRA was started. Of 42 evaluable patients, 36 (86%) achieved CR. In the third study, if initial leukemia cell counts were more than 200/microliters, chemotherapy was concomitantly given with ATRA, and if during the ATRA therapy leukemia cell counts became more than 1000/microliters, chemotherapy was added. Of 46 evaluable patients, 36 (78%) achieved CR. Patients achieving CR received standard consolidation and maintenance chemotherapy, and the 29-month predicted disease-free survival (DFS) rate is 72% for 41 cases achieving their first CR with ATRA, and 20% for 49 cases achieving their second CR with ATRA. In the fourth study for newly diagnosed APL, if leukocyte counts were more than 3000/microliters, chemotherapy was concomitantly given with ATRA, and if during the ATRA therapy leukemia cell counts became more than 1000/microliters, chemotherapy was added. Of 109 evaluable patients, 97 (89%) achieved CR, and the 19-month predicted event-free survival rate for all patients is 78%, and the DFS rate is 88% for 97 cases achieving CR. ATRA produces a high CR rate in both relapsed/refractory and newly diagnosed APL, and should be incorporated in the first-line therapy of this disease.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / blood
  • Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy*
  • Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / mortality
  • Leukocyte Count / drug effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Recurrence
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • Tretinoin / adverse effects
  • Tretinoin / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Tretinoin