Graves' ophthalmopathy is an organ-specific autoimmune process strongly linked to Graves' hyperthyroidism. Although the hyperthyroidism can be successfully treated, it is often the ophthalmopathy that produces the greatest long-term disability for patients suffering from this disease. Eyelid retraction, proptosis, periorbital edema, chemosis, and disturbances of ocular motility have both cosmetic and functional consequences. In some cases, the disease may progress to visual loss by exposure keratopathy or compressive optic neuropathy. This article discusses the manifestations of Graves' ophthalmopathy that require urgent attention and the relationship of the activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy to thyroid function status.