The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children

Scand J Psychol. 1994 Dec;35(4):315-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.1994.tb00956.x.


A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Child Rearing
  • Child, Preschool
  • Conflict, Psychological
  • Employment*
  • Family*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology
  • Sweden
  • Whites*
  • Workload*