A distinct array of proinflammatory cytokines is expressed in human colon epithelial cells in response to bacterial invasion

J Clin Invest. 1995 Jan;95(1):55-65. doi: 10.1172/JCI117676.


Pathogenic bacteria that penetrate the intestinal epithelial barrier stimulate an inflammatory response in the adjacent intestinal mucosa. The present studies asked whether colon epithelial cells can provide signals that are important for the initiation and amplification of an acute mucosal inflammatory response. Infection of monolayers of human colon epithelial cell lines (T84, HT29, Caco-2) with invasive strains of bacteria (Salmonella dublin, Shigella dysenteriae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli) resulted in the coordinate expression and upregulation of a specific array of four proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, GM-CSF, and TNF alpha, as assessed by mRNA levels and cytokine secretion. Expression of the same cytokines was upregulated after TNF alpha or IL-1 stimulation of these cells. In contrast, cytokine gene expression was not altered after infection of colon epithelial cells with noninvasive bacteria or the noninvasive protozoan parasite, G. lamblia. Notably, none of the cell lines expressed mRNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-gamma, or significant levels of IL-1 or IL-10 in response to the identical stimuli. The coordinate expression of IL-8, MCP-1, GM-CSF and TNF alpha appears to be a general property of human colon epithelial cells since an identical array of cytokines, as well as IL-6, also was expressed by freshly isolated human colon epithelial cells. Since the cytokines expressed in response to bacterial invasion or other proinflammatory agonists have a well documented role in chemotaxis and activation of inflammatory cells, colon epithelial cells appear to be programmed to provide a set of signals for the activation of the mucosal inflammatory response in the earliest phases after microbial invasion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Line
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemotactic Factors / biosynthesis
  • Colonic Diseases / immunology*
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Epithelium / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Giardia lamblia
  • Giardiasis / metabolism
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology


  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemotactic Factors
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-8
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor