This paper evaluates the use of quantitative methods to accurately assess cell proliferation and death in untreated and treated prostate lesions. The analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-stained nuclei allow precise evaluation of the proliferating cells and exact identification of their location in the progression of untreated prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). The evaluation of the frequency and location of apoptotic bodies (ABs) gives accurate information on the apoptotic phenomenon in PIN compared to normal prostate (NP) and PAC. In fact, the frequency of ABs increases from NP to PIN to PAC and parallels that observed with PCNA. However, the AB-related values were approximately one-eighth to one-tenth of those obtained with PCNA immunostaining. Combination endocrine therapy (CET) decreases the proliferative activity and enhances the apoptosis phenomenon in NP, PIN, and PAC. This might indicate that CET could induce a certain degree of regression not only of PAC, but also of PIN.