The purpose of the experiments was to determine if steroid hormone treatments would attenuate the effect of the muscarinic receptor blocker scopolamine on a memory task. Ovariectomized rats were trained first to alternate for food reward between the arms of a T maze. Following training, females treated with scopolamine hydrobromide (0.2 mg/kg ip) did not alternate correctly between the arms of the T maze and responded at chance levels. However, when estradiol benzoate (25 micrograms) was administered 72, 48, and 24 hr before testing alone or in combination with progesterone (500 micrograms) administered 4-6 hr before testing, females alternated successfully between the arms of the T maze following scopolamine administration. Results indicate that gonadal steroids can completely counteract the impairment of T maze performance induced by scopolamine in female rats.