We have isolated two closely related cDNA clones (cATPK19 and cATPK6) with homology to protein-serine/threonine kinases from Arabidopsis thaliana using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The deduced amino acid sequences of the ATPK19 and ATPK6 contain all 11 conserved regions of the catalytic domain of protein kinases, and have homology to p70 ribosomal S6 kinases (52%). ATPK19 and ATPK6 have putative PEST regions in their N- and C-terminal regions, and these regions also contain putative phosphorylation sites that are recognized by casein kinases or proline-directed protein kinases such as cdc2, MAP kinase, and p54 MAP-2 kinase (SAPK). The transcription levels of the ATPK19 and ATPK6 genes rapidly and markedly increased when plants were subjected to cold or high-salt stresses. These observations suggest that ATPK19 and ATPK6 may function in the adaptation of plant cells to cold or high-salt conditions, providing an understanding of the role of protein phosphorylation in plant responses to environmental stresses.