Facial wrinkling in men and women, by smoking status

Am J Public Health. 1995 Jan;85(1):78-82. doi: 10.2105/ajph.85.1.78.


Objectives: This study examined the association of smoking status and pack-years of smoking with facial wrinkling in men and women.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 299 never smokers, 551 former smokers and 286 current smokers, aged 30 through 69 years, drawn from a health maintenance organization. Smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and potential confounding variables were assessed by questionnaire. Facial wrinkle category, a dichotomous variable, and facial wrinkle score, a computed continuous variable, were assessed by blinded standardized visual assessment. Wrinkling was so uncommon among 30- through 39-year-old subjects that analyses were restricted to subjects aged 40 and over (227 never smokers, 456 former smokers, and 228 current smokers).

Results: With age, average sun exposure, and body mass index controlled, the estimated relative risk of moderate/severe wrinkling for current smokers compared to never smokers was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 4.2) among men and 3.1 (95% CI = 1.6, 5.9) among women. Pack-years was positively associated with facial wrinkle score in women aged 40 through 69 years and in men aged 40 through 59 years. In both groups, the increased risk of wrinkling was equivalent to about 1.4 years of aging.

Conclusions: Our results support earlier findings that risk of facial wrinkling is greater in cigarette smokers than in never smokers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Skin Aging*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*