In the last 10 years, Ethiopian Jews have immigrated to Israel in large numbers. Up to 1990 they came directly from their remote villages in northern Ethiopia and no HIV infection was detected in the several thousands that came. In contrast, 1.74% of approximately 14,000 new immigrant Ethiopians who arrived in 1991-92, after spending more than a year in Addis Ababa, were HIV positive. Several infants born in Israel following the latter immigration were found to be infected, whereas more than 2500 children born in Ethiopia were negative. Sexual transmission during their stay in Addis Ababa is thought to be the only route of infection, and therefore this is a newly infected population. Immunological studies revealed very low CD4 count in HIV-infected people. HIV-negative Ethiopian immigrants to Israel also have a lower CD4 count than the general Israeli population. Further studies are currently under way to look at the natural history of this particular HIV-infected group.