Kidney and retinal defects (Krd), a transgene-induced mutation with a deletion of mouse chromosome 19 that includes the Pax2 locus

Genomics. 1994 Sep 15;23(2):309-20. doi: 10.1006/geno.1994.1506.


The semidominant mutation Krd (kidney and retinal defects) was identified in transgenic line Tg8052. Krd/+ mice have a high incidence of kidney defects including aplastic, hypoplastic, and cystic kidneys. Retinal defects in Krd/+ mice include abnormal electroretinograms and a reduction of cell numbers that is most extreme in the inner cell and ganglion layers. Viability of Krd/+ mice is strongly influenced by genetic background, and growth retardation is observed in young animals. Homozygosity results in early embryonic lethality. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of a transgene-specific probe localized the insertion site to the distal region of mouse Chromosome 19. The sequence of the insertion site revealed transgene insertion into a LINE element with deletion of a single nucleotide from the 3' terminus of the transgene. A polymorphic microsatellite, D19Umi1, was identified in a junction clone and mapped in several large crosses. D19Umi1 is located 1.7 +/- 1.0 cM distal to Pax2, which encodes a paired type transcription factor expressed in embryonic kidney and eye. Deletion of Pax2 from the transgenic chromosome was demonstrated by Southern analysis of genomic DNA from (Krd/+ x SPRET/Ei)F1 mice. Additional genetic and molecular data are consistent with an approximately 7-cM deletion that includes the loci stearoyl CoA desaturase (Scd1), pale ear (ep), D19Mit17, D19Mit24, D19Mit27, D19Mit11, and Pax2. This deletion, Del(19)TgN8052Mm, will be useful for genetic and functional studies of this region of mouse Chromosome 19.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • DNA, Satellite / genetics
  • Female
  • Genes, Homeobox
  • Genes, Recessive
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Genetic Markers
  • Kidney / abnormalities*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation*
  • Polycystic Kidney Diseases / genetics
  • Retina / abnormalities*


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Satellite
  • Genetic Markers