Given the shortage of cadaveric organs, we began a study utilizing NHBD for OLTx and KTx. There were 24 NHBD between January 1989 and September 1993. These donors were divided into 2 groups: uncontrolled NHBD (G1) (n = 14) were patients whose organs were recovered following a period of CPR; and controlled NHBD (G2) (n = 10) were patients whose organs were procured after sustaining cardiopulmonary arrest (CA) following extubation in an operating room setting. Eight kidneys and 5 livers were discarded because of macroscopic or biopsy findings. In G1, 22/27 (81.5%) kidneys were transplanted; 14/22 (64%) developed ATN; 20/22 (95%) recipients were off dialysis at the time of discharge. With a mean follow-up of 32.7 +/- 21.1 months, sixteen (73%) kidneys are still functioning, with a mean serum creatinine of 1.7 +/- 0.6 mg/dl. The one-year actuarial patient and graft survivals are 95% and 86%. In G2, 17/20 (85%) kidneys were transplanted; 13/17 (76%) kidneys experienced ATN. All patients were off dialysis by the time of discharge. With a mean follow-up of 17.6 +/- 15.4 months, twelve (70%) kidneys are still functioning, with a mean serum creatinine of 2.5 +/- 2.1 mg/dl. The one-year actuarial patient and graft survivals are 94% and 82%, respectively. In G1, 6/10 (60%) livers were transplanted; 3/6 (50%) livers functioned, the other 3 patients required ReOLTx in the first week postoperatively because of PNF (n = 2) and inadequate portal flow (n = 1). Two functioning livers were lost due to HAT (n = 1) and CMV hepatitis (n = 1). In G2, 6/7 (85.7%) livers were transplanted. All the livers (100%) functioned. 2 patients required ReOLTx for HAT at 0.9 and 1.0 months. Both patients eventually died. One patient with a functioning liver died 2 months post OLTx. The remaining 3 patients are alive and well at 27 months of follow-up. This study shows that the procurement of kidneys from both uncontrolled and controlled NHBD leads to acceptable graft function despite a high incidence of ATN. The function of liver allografts is adequate in the controlled NHBD but suboptimal in the uncontrolled NHBD, with a high rate of PNF.