The relationship of oats and buckwheat intake to cardiovascular disease risk factors was studied in 850 Yi people, an ethnic minority in southwest China. Blood pressure was measured on 3 consecutive days. Serum total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured after a 14-h fast. Oats and buckwheat intakes were assessed by questionnaire. In multiple-regression analysis, oats intake (100 g/d) was associated with lower body mass index (-0.25, in kg/m2; P < 0.05), systolic (-3.1 mm Hg, P < 0.001) and diastolic (-1.3 mm Hg, P < 0.01) blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol (-0.13 mmol/L, P < 0.001). Buckwheat intake (100 g/d) was associated with lower serum total cholesterol (-0.07 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.06 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and a higher ratio of HDL to total cholesterol (0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest a role for oats and buckwheat consumption in the prevention and treatment of both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.