Sodium chloride deficiency (SCD) was observed within the 1st year of life in 12 of 46 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients between July 1989 and September 1992. All patients showed sweating, loss of appetite, fever, vomiting, irritation, dehydration, weakness, and cyanosis during an attack. Mean plasma sodium, potassium and chloride levels were 122.9 (range 106-135), 2.5 (range 1.6-3.5), and 73.3 (range 60-90) mEq/l respectively. Alkalosis and elevated plasma renin activity were detected in all patients. Of the patients, 50% showed microscopic haematuria, and hypercalciuria was detected in two out of four patients. Low urinary sodium and high urinary potassium were observed in the four examined patients. Increased creatinine, BUN and uric acid values returned to normal with treatment. All the patients were treated initially with intravenous fluids and electrolyte solutions. All patients were less than 7 months of age during the first attack, five received only breast milk and the others breast milk with formula milk. Their oral salt supplement was 2-4 mEq/kg per day, which is recommended for CF patients, but could be deficient in excessively sweating infants. The genotype of these patients might be cause of high salt losses. F508 is the most common mutation with the frequency of 38% in our CF patients with SCD, but the frequency of unknown mutations is high (54%).