Standard postoperative dual-chamber pacing uses ventricular leads placed on the right ventricle that produce dysynchronous ventricular activation and contraction. The hypothesis that simultaneous stimulation of both ventricles by atrio-biventricular pacing improves hemodynamic performance compared with that observed with standard atrio-monoventricular pacing was tested in 18 patients 12 to 36 hours after elective coronary artery revascularization. Temporary epicardial pacing electrodes were placed on the right atrium and into anterior paraseptal sites on the right and left ventricle. Simultaneous biventricular activation was documented by fusion morphology of surface electrocardiograms and by isochronal epicardial activation mapping during biventricular pacing. Hemodynamic data were acquired after 10 minutes of pacing at a fixed overdrive rate during atrial pacing and during dual-chamber pacing using unipolar right ventricular, unipolar left ventricular, and bipolar biventricular (left ventricular cathode) leads. Atrio-biventricular pacing increased cardiac index and decreased systemic vascular resistance compared with atrial pacing and with atrio-right ventricular and atrio-left ventricular dual-chamber pacing (p < 0.05). These data support the use of atrio-biventricular pacing employing paraseptal electrodes to optimize hemodynamic performance.