Long-term survival in systemic lupus erythematosus. Patient characteristics associated with poorer outcomes

Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Feb;38(2):274-83. doi: 10.1002/art.1780380218.


Objective: To investigate the associations of age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status with long-term survival in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: We examined survival in an inception cohort of 408 patients with SLE. The cohort included 177 black females, 162 white females, 49 white males, and 20 black males. The median duration of followup was 11 years (range 0.1-22 years).

Results: One hundred forty-four patients died during the study. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival estimates for the entire cohort were 82%, 71%, and 63%, respectively. In univariate analyses, mortality rates increased with age and were higher among males, blacks, those without private medical insurance, and those living in census tracts with lower household incomes. In multivariate analyses, age, sex, and both socioeconomic indicators were associated with total mortality (mortality from any cause), while race was not. Lower socioeconomic status and increased age were also associated with higher rates of death from SLE.

Conclusion: Socioeconomic status, but not race, is associated with mortality in SLE. SLE-related mortality also tends to increase with age, which suggests that SLE may not be less severe when it occurs later in life.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Insurance, Health
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / epidemiology*
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Socioeconomic Factors