Several studies since the commencement of fluoridation in 1955 have demonstrated over 50% reduction in mean dmft for 5-year-old Anglesey children in comparison with local control groups. From 1987 fluoridation became intermittent and in 1991 it was terminated. In the present study, carried out in 1993, the total number of children examined was 725 (88.4% of the entire population of 5-year-old school children), of whom 498 had continually resided in specific water distribution zones. The mean dmft for the entire number examined was 2.01 (SD = 3.27). For those who had experienced fluoridation during approximately 35% of their lives (n = 230) it was 1.81 (SD = 2.86) and for those who had experienced fluoridation for less than 10% of their lives (n = 268) it was 2.28 (SD = 3.48). In 1987/88, the last year of optimal fluoridation, the mean dmft of Anglesey 5-year-old children was 0.80 (SD = 1.43) and for those resident on the non-fluoridated Gwynedd mainland it was 2.26 (SD = 3.17). The study demonstrates the serious consequences for dental health when fluoridation is withdrawn and how difficult it will be to reach dental health targets in North Wales without fluoridation.