Cell Cycle Control by Steroid Hormones

Semin Cancer Biol. 1994 Oct;5(5):381-9.


Steroid hormones have well documented stimulatory and inhibitory effects on target cell proliferation. These effects are steroid- and target cell-specific and are mediated by cell cycle phase-specific actions. The molecular mechanisms by which steroids control rates of cell cycle progression are, however, not well defined. Recent advances in our understanding of cell cycle control by proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and cyclin dependent kinases provide models for further delineating the molecular basis of proliferation control by steroids. Transcriptional activation of c-fos, c-myc and cyclin D1 by estrogens and progestins in breast cancer cells and inhibition of expression of these genes by antiestrogens provide a paradigm for further understanding cell cycle control by steroids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / physiology
  • Cyclins / genetics
  • Estrogen Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Estrogens / pharmacology
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Progestins / pharmacology
  • Proto-Oncogenes


  • Cyclins
  • Estrogen Antagonists
  • Estrogens
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Progestins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases