Leiomyomatosis with vascular invasion. A unified pathogenesis regarding leiomyoma with vascular microinvasion, benign metastasizing leiomyoma and intravenous leiomyomatosis

Virchows Arch. 1994;425(5):541-5. doi: 10.1007/BF00197559.


Three uterine leiomyomas with vascular invasion (LWVI), two of which were associated with pulmonary leiomyomatous nodules, and a case of intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) invading the vena cava and extending to the right atrium, are described. Despite their histological benignity, these lesions have a strong tendency to metastasize and are closely related to the so-called benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML). From a clinical point of view, the pulmonary nodules of LWVI are stable or slowly-growing. The IVL was a "worm-like" tumour that presented as a cardiac mass. On the basis of their histological and immunohistological features, a unified histogenetic view of LWVI, IVL and BML of the uterus is proposed. LWVI and BML may be the same pathological entity and microscopic vascular invasion may represent the metastatic mechanism of BML. Alternatively, LWVI may be the initial stage of IVL. In rare instances, IVL may be associated with distant parenchymal (pulmonary) metastases. LWVI seems to be the precursor of both BML and IVL.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Angiomyoma / pathology
  • Blood Vessels / pathology*
  • Female
  • Heart Atria
  • Humans
  • Leiomyomatosis / pathology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Radiography, Thoracic
  • Uterine Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Veins
  • Venae Cavae / pathology