Proliferative periosteal disease was identified in 6 black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) of 2 family groups. Bilaterally symmetric formation of periosteal new bone at the metaphyseal regions of major long bones was first detected at the stifle and tarsal areas and was detected later at the carpal areas. Bony changes were accompanied by progressive renal disease. The syndrome progressed for 6 to 16 months before the lemurs were euthanatized because of debility. Necropsy revealed changes confined to the skeleton and kidneys. Formation of new bone was detected at all affected joints, and chronic renal disease was evident in each lemur. A specific cause was not identified. Although indistinguishable histologically from hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, several important differences were apparent. Distribution of the periosteal new bone was in the metaphyseal rather than diaphyseal areas. Thoracic or gastrointestinal lesions, typically seen with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, were not detected, and substantial renal disease was evident. A genetic component may be involved in the development of this condition.