Review: protective efficacy of hepatitis B vaccines in neonates

J Med Virol. 1994 Oct;44(2):144-51. doi: 10.1002/jmv.1890440206.


A literature search was carried out to investigate the factors that influence the protective efficacy (PE) of hepatitis B vaccines when given to neonates of hepatitis B surface antigen and e antigen positive mothers. Hepatitis B vaccines with either high or low antigen doses are very effective in preventing chronic hepatitis B infection in neonates at risk, but there is evidence that with lower dosages simultaneous use of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) administration is more important than with higher dosages to elicit good protection (PE > or = 90%). There is also a tendency for lower dosages to confer high PE less consistently, with noticeably greater numbers of chronic surface antigen carriers in neonates who received a complete vaccination course. Furthermore vaccination courses with higher vaccine dosages give high PEs, without concomitant HBIG administration at birth, provided that the first vaccine dose is given at birth and that the second dose follows within 2 months.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Female
  • Hepatitis B / prevention & control*
  • Hepatitis B / transmission
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Schedule
  • Immunoglobulins / administration & dosage
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • Pregnancy


  • Hepatitis B Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulins
  • hepatitis B hyperimmune globulin