Developments in mucosal influenza virus vaccines

Vaccine. 1994 Nov;12(14):1303-10. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(94)80056-6.


Immunogenicity and efficacy of aerosol inactivated split influenza virus vaccines, which are threefold the strength of the vaccines for parenteral use, and cold-adapted reassortant live influenza virus vaccines were evaluated. Mucosal immune responses were evaluated by quantifying specific IgA antibody of the nasal swab solution, and systemic immune responses were evaluated by determining serum haemagglutination inhibition antibody levels. Efficacy of the aerosol inactivated vaccine was evaluated by a challenge test using live vaccine virus. It was concluded that mucosally administered inactivated influenza virus vaccine stimulated systemic and mucosal immune responses more strongly than live influenza virus vaccine and manifested a much stronger booster effect than live vaccine. Mucosal administration of inactivated influenza virus vaccine was effective in preventing infection by live vaccine virus.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adolescent
  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Male
  • Nasal Mucosa / immunology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Influenza Vaccines