Immunogenicity and efficacy of aerosol inactivated split influenza virus vaccines, which are threefold the strength of the vaccines for parenteral use, and cold-adapted reassortant live influenza virus vaccines were evaluated. Mucosal immune responses were evaluated by quantifying specific IgA antibody of the nasal swab solution, and systemic immune responses were evaluated by determining serum haemagglutination inhibition antibody levels. Efficacy of the aerosol inactivated vaccine was evaluated by a challenge test using live vaccine virus. It was concluded that mucosally administered inactivated influenza virus vaccine stimulated systemic and mucosal immune responses more strongly than live influenza virus vaccine and manifested a much stronger booster effect than live vaccine. Mucosal administration of inactivated influenza virus vaccine was effective in preventing infection by live vaccine virus.