Polyphasic methods were used to examine the taxonomic positions of three newly identified Grahamella species. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these organisms with the sequences available for other bacteria revealed that these three species form a tight monophyletic cluster with members of the genus Bartonella. This cluster is only remotely related to other members of the order Rickettsiales. Determinations of the levels of DNA relatedness between Grahamella species and Bartonella species (by using a modified hydroxyapatite method) revealed that all of the species belonging to these two genera are distinct but closely related. On the basis of these data and the results of guanine-plus-cytosine content and phenotypic characterization studies, we propose that the genera Grahamella and Bartonella should be unified and that the latter name should be retained. Bartonella talpae and Bartonella peromysci, new combinations for former Grahamella species, are created, and the following three new Bartonella species are described: Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii, and Bartonella doshiae. A taxonomic analysis of Grahamella species complete the study of all members of the family Bartonellaceae, and the results of this study support the proposal that the family should be transferred out of the order Rickettsiales.