The cellular fatty acids, respiratory quinones, and proteins of the generically misnamed taxa Bacteroides gracilis and Bacteroides ureolyticus were analyzed and compared with the corresponding chemotaxonomic features of their closest relatives, the campylobacters. Our results and previously published data for genotypic and phenotypic characteristics were used in a polyphasic approach to reconsider the classification of these organisms. We transfer B. gracilis to the genus Campylobacter as Campylobacter gracilis comb. nov. B. ureolyticus can be considered a campylobacter on genotypic grounds; in contrast, the proteolytic metabolism and fatty acid components of this taxon exclude it from the genus Campylobacter. We prefer to consider this taxon a species incertae sedis pending the isolation and characterization of additional B. ureolyticus-like bacteria.