Candida species are the most common fungal pathogens isolated from the oral cavity. Their oral existence both as a commensal and an opportunist pathogen has intrigued clinicians and scientists for many decades, and recent investigations have revealed many attributes of this fungus contributing to its pathogenicity. In addition, the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS has resulted in a resurgence of oral Candida infections. Clinicians are witnessing not only classic forms of the diseases but also newer clinical variants such as erythematous candidosis, rarely described hithertofore. Therefore, this review is an attempt at detailing the current knowledge on Candida and oral candidoses together with the newer therapeutic regimes employed in treating these mycoses.