Diet, alcohol, smoking and cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract: a prospective study among Hawaii Japanese men

Int J Cancer. 1995 Mar 3;60(5):616-21. doi: 10.1002/ijc.2910600508.


A cohort study of upper aerodigestive tract cancer was conducted among 7,995 Japanese-American men who were interviewed and examined from 1965 to 1968. Information was collected about smoking history and alcohol and dietary intake. After 24 years, 92 incident cases with histological confirmation of diagnosis were identified. Current cigarette smokers at time of examination had a 3-fold risk for upper aerodigestive tract cancer compared with never-smokers. A dose-response relationship was present with increasing amount and duration of cigarette use. Consumption of beer, wine, spirits and total alcohol was strongly associated with increased risk. Of 23 food and beverage categories, only candy/jelly/soda pop consumption had a statistically significant inverse trend. Frequent consumption of fruit was also inversely associated with this cancer. In contrast, the risk tended to be positively associated with consumption of rice, seaweed, tofu or tsukudani (a mixed dish of fish, sugar, soy sauce and seaweed), but the dose-response relationship was not statistically significant. For nutrient intake, increased calcium and fat intake decreased the risk for this cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ethnology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet Records
  • Diet* / adverse effects
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology
  • Ethnicity
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Hawaii / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Japan / ethnology
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / etiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Risk
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology*