(R)-11-Hydroxyaporphine (2) and (R)-11-hydroxy-10-methylaporphine (3) were synthesized from natural morphine by using new, short, and efficient synthetic sequences. The dopaminergic and serotonergic effects of 2 and 3 were evaluated by use of in vitro and in vivo test systems. The results indicate that 3 is a potent, selective, and efficacious 5-HT1A receptor agonist. In contrast, 2 is a partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist of low potency which has affinity also for central D1 and D2A receptors. The differences in pharmacological profiles were rationalized by modeling of ligand-receptor interactions using homology-based receptor models of the 5-HT1A and D2A receptor binding site. The selective and pronounced serotonergic effects of 3 appear to be due to the C10-methyl group, which is accommodated by a lipophilic pocket in the 5-HT1A receptor. In contrast, the C10-methyl group of 3 is not accommodated by the binding site model of the D2A receptor.