Lateral cortical impact injury in rats: pathologic effects of varying cortical compression and impact velocity

J Neurotrauma. 1994 Oct;11(5):587-97. doi: 10.1089/neu.1994.11.587.

Abstract

Direct lateral cortical impact through the intact leptomeninges using a pneumatically driven piston produces increasingly severe pathophysiologic derangements with increasing cortical deformation. We studied the histopathologic correlates of cortical impact injury produced by 2 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 mm deformation in the rat at 5 m/sec. Additionally, the effect of impact velocity at a 2.5 mm deformation was assessed at 1 m/sec, 3 m/sec, and 5 m/sec. The brains were examined 14 days after injury. Cortical contusion maximum cross-sectional area, volume, and the percentage CA1 and CA3 hippocampal neuronal loss correlate with cortical deformation and impactor velocity. Contusion volume increased with increasing cortical deformation. Deformations of 2, 2.5, and 3 mm at 5 m/sec produced contusion volumes of 4.59, 8.9, and 21.68 mm3, respectively. At a fixed cortical deformation of 2.5 mm, contusion volume increased with increasing impact velocity. Impact velocities of 1, 3, and 5 m/sec produced contusion volumes of 5.79, 7.42, and 8.9 mm3, respectively. Hippocampal CA3 neuronal loss increased with increasing cortical deformation. Deformations of 2, 2.5, and 3 mm at 5 m/sec produced neuronal loss of 29%, 48.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. At a fixed cortical deformation of 2.5 mm, hippocampal CA3 neuronal loss increased with increasing impact velocity. Impact velocities of 1, 3, and 5 m/sec produced neuronal loss of 18.25%, 33.75%, and 48.3%, respectively. Hippocampal CA1 neuronal loss was also seen and paralleled cortical deformation and impact velocity. Cortical deformation and impact velocity are critical parameters in producing cortical contusion and must be considered when comparing results using this model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Concussion / pathology
  • Brain Injuries / pathology*
  • Cell Death
  • Cerebral Cortex / injuries*
  • Cerebral Cortex / pathology
  • Hippocampus / pathology
  • Neurons / pathology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains