This study analyzed the prevalence, aggravating factors (including duration of diabetes, glycemic control, body mass index, hypertension, serum total cholesterol, changes of ST on ECG and diabetic therapies) and characteristics of diabetic retinopathy in 75 patients with pancreatic diabetes resulting from calcifying pancreatitis. The patients were divided into three Groups: Group I (27 patients in whom diabetes was detected earlier than pancreatic stones), Group II (36 patients in whom diabetes and pancreatic stones were simultaneously detected) and Group III (12 patients in whom pancreatic stones were detected earlier than diabetes). The prevalence of retinopathy was dependent on the duration of diabetes as well as poor glycemic control. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher among the patient with the duration of diabetes that was more than 5 years than that of the patients whose duration was less than 5 years. The prevalence of retinopathy in Group I (63%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in Group II (30.6%) and Group III (12.5%). Proliferative retinopathy was not found in any patients with a duration of diabetes less than 5 years, while it was found in 5 patients with a duration of more than 5 years (5 cases out of 31 patients). Diabetic retinopathy was correlated with the duration of diabetes and glycemic control, and was not linked to frequency of hypoglycemia and family history of diabetes. From the results above, we concluded that diabetic retinopathy in patients with pancreatic diabetes due to calcifying pancreatitis might be taken as evidence that such complications are primarily due to chronic hyperglycemia and the duration of diabetes mellitus rather than to genetic factors and other factors (body mass index, hypertension, serum total cholesterol and diabetic therapies).