Since the cloning of the first member of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family, termed NHE1, four NHE isoforms have been cloned (NHE2, NHE3, NHE4, and the trout beta-NHE) and expressed in exchanger-deficient cell lines. All these isoforms exhibit significant identity to NHE1 and possess a similar hydropathy profile with two highly conserved transmembrane segments presumably involved in ion transport. These isoforms are allosterically activated by intracellular H+, regulate intracellular pH in a Na(+)-dependent manner, and are inhibited by amiloride and 5-amino derivatives with distinct Ki values. NHE1 is the amiloride-sensitive, growth factor-activatable, and ubiquitously expressed NHE known to regulate intracellular pH and cellular volume. NHE2, NHE3, and NHE4 are, however, restricted in their tissue distribution, suggesting roles in specialized functions of these epithelial tissues. In this review we present and discuss the most recent advances in the molecular and biochemical features, hormonal and growth factor activation, specific expression, and membrane sorting of the members of this NHE family.