Mucositis represents one of the most frequent complications during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Few studies have showed effective prevention against mucositis in this setting. In this randomized study, we tested the efficacy of vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Twenty patients with malignant haemopathies were included; 19 patients were evaluable for the prevention of mucositis. Ten patients were treated with induction therapy for acute myelogenous leukaemia and 9 were treated with intensive therapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantations. The severity of mucositis was evaluated according to World Health Organization classification. Our results showed that vitamin E may be of therapeutical value in the prevention of mucositis especially during induction therapy for acute myelogenous leukaemia.