Age- and sex-dependent force-related function of the cervical spine

Eur Spine J. 1994;3(3):155-61. doi: 10.1007/BF02190578.


A total of 272 normal persons (109 men, 163 women) between the age of 14 and 84 years was studied for age, body weight, height, neck circumference and neck length. For evaluation of performance, a lifting test and an isometric extension force test showed sex- and age-specific differences in this group. A reliability test with two independent observers showed a good correlation of two consecutive measurements. The lifting test (PILE) and the isometric neck extension force test (IMPET) have been shown to be easy to administer, inexpensive and reliable. The data presented can be used as a data base for European persons for clinical research.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anthropometry
  • Cervical Vertebrae / anatomy & histology
  • Cervical Vertebrae / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Isometric Contraction / physiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neck Muscles / physiology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Weight-Bearing / physiology