Few studies have been done on the prevalence of illicit methadone use. Five hundred fifty-nine IV drug users recruited in various ways in Montreal were interviewed concerning their drug use as part of a longitudinal study on HIV infection. Of this number, 133 had heroin as their drug of preference and 426 cocaine. Among the cocaine group, 202 also used heroin. The lifetime prevalence of any illicit methadone use was 59.4% in the heroin group, 26.7% in the cocaine/heroin group, and 3.6% in the cocaine-only group. The 6-month (preceding the interview) prevalence of any illicit use was 42.1%, 6.9%, and 1.3%, respectively, and the prevalence of at least weekly illicit use during that period was 6.3%, 2.0%, and 0%, respectively. The prevalence of illicit methadone use is significant in the population studied. Whether this level of use will be affected by more stringent control on methadone prescription and dispensation remains to be demonstrated.