Gradient moment nulling in fast spin echo

Magn Reson Med. 1994 Dec;32(6):698-706. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910320604.


The fast spin echo sequence combines data from many echo signals in a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill echo train to form a single image. Much of the signal in the second and later echoes results from the coherent addition of stimulated echo signal components back to the spin echo signal. Because stimulated echoes experience no dephasing effects during the time that they are stored as Mz magnetization, they experience a different gradient first moment than does the spin echo. This leads to flow-related phase differences between different echo components and results in flow voids and ghosting, even when the first moment is nulled for the spin echo signal. A method of gradient moment nulling that correctly compensates both spin echo and stimulated echo components has been developed. The simplest solution involves nulling the first gradient moment at least at the RF pulses and preferably at both the RF pulses and the echoes. Phantom and volunteer studies demonstrate good suppression of flow-related artifacts.

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts*
  • Cervical Vertebrae / anatomy & histology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Models, Structural