Rate of glucose entry into hepatic uridine diphosphoglucose by the direct pathway in fasted and fed states in normal humans

Metabolism. 1995 Feb;44(2):172-82. doi: 10.1016/0026-0495(95)90261-9.


We used the glucuronate (GlcUA) probe technique to measure the rate of glucose entry into hepatic uridine diphosphoglucose (UDP-glc) by the direct pathway, to quantify the rate of appearance (Ra) of hepatic UDP-glc, and to calculate hepatic glucose cycling in vivo in normal humans. The direct pathway contribution to UDP-glc as determined by the ratio of [1-d1]-GlcUA to plasma [LD1]-glucose enrichments was minor (15% to 20%) in normal men after an overnight fast. After 9 hours of refeeding with intravenous (IV) glucose or an oral liquid formula meal each at a rate of 7 mg carbohydrate/kg/min, the direct pathway increased to 66.3% +/- 6.7% and 61.6% +/- 6.0% (mean +/- SE), respectively. Plasma glucose concentrations remained below 7.8 mmol/L and could not account for most of the variability in direct pathway contribution. The dilution of labeled [L-D1]-galactose in excreted acetaminophen-GlcUA was used to measure Ra UDP-glc, on the assumption that labeled galactose passes through the liver during its assimilation. Ra UDP-glc was 1.1 +/- 0.1 mg/kg/min after an overnight fast and increased to 2.0 +/- 0.1 with i.v. glucose and 2.6 +/- 0.2 with the oral liquid mixed meal. By combining the fractional glucose contribution with the Ra of hepatic UDP-glc, the rate of direct glucose entry into hepatic UDP-glc was 0.2 mg/kg/min (fasted) and increased to 1.3 to 1.6 (fed). This represented approximately 18% to 21% of systemic glucose disposal or 19% to 23% of the administered carbohydrate load during i.v. or oral refeeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / urine
  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Fasting
  • Glucose / administration & dosage
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Uridine Diphosphate Glucose / blood
  • Uridine Diphosphate Glucose / metabolism*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Acetaminophen
  • Glucose
  • Uridine Diphosphate Glucose