In a previous study of normal control subjects, positive correlations were demonstrated between intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and various measures of brain size, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (Andreasen et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to see if these findings generalized to schizophrenia. Corresponding analyses were performed in a group of DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients (50 men and 22 women) and compared with a subset of those normal control subjects (32 men and 27 women) who were equivalent to the patient group in their age and the educational and socioeconomic background of their families of origin. Full Scale IQ score was found to be uncorrelated with any of the regions of interest for the patient group as a whole. When subjects were divided by sex, the female patients were found to have a pattern of correlations similar to that of normal control subjects, while no such relationship was apparent among the male patients. These differences did not appear to be attributable to variability in symptom severity. Thus, there appear to be gender-related differences in brain structure/function relationships in schizophrenic patients versus normal control subjects.