Oxyphilic papillary carcinomas of the thyroid have not been extensively studied because they are rare. The morphology and behavior of 34 cases were described. The average age was 44.1 years, the female-to-male ratio was 3.9:1, and the average diameter of the tumors was 2.3 cm. All had papillary structures present. In 31 cases, there was capsular or parenchymal invasion. Six cancers had local lymph node metastases. The average follow-up for 29 patients was 8.1 years. Tumors reappeared in four patients; one patient died from recurrent disease, one patient with disease died due to an unrelated carcinoma, and two patients were treated successfully. Twenty-seven patients at the end of follow-up were alive with no detectable thyroid cancer. The majority of patients remained free of tumor, especially those younger than 50 years.