A possible vulnerability locus for bipolar affective disorder on chromosome 21q22.3

Nat Genet. 1994 Nov;8(3):291-6. doi: 10.1038/ng1194-291.


In a preliminary genome scan of 47 bipolar disorder families, we detected in one family a lod score of 3.41 at the PFKL locus on chromosome 21q22.3. The lod score is robust to marker allele frequencies, phenocopy rates and age-dependent penetrance, and remains strongly positive with changes in affection status. Fourteen other markers in 21q22.3 were tested on this family, with largely positive lod scores. Five of the other 46 families also show positive, but modest lod scores with PFKL. When all 47 families are analysed together, there is little support for linkage to PFKL under homogeneity or heterogeneity using lod score analysis, but the model-free affected-pedigree-member method yields statistically significant results (p < 0.0003). Our results are consistent with the presence of a gene in 21q22.3 predisposing at least one family to bipolar disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alleles
  • Bipolar Disorder / genetics*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Markers
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Lod Score
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pedigree


  • Genetic Markers