Detection of a functional promoter/enhancer in an intron-less human gene encoding a glutamine synthetase-like enzyme

Gene. 1995 Feb 14;153(2):163-99. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(94)00751-d.


A human genomic clone, psi GS, containing an intron-less glutamine synthetase (GS)-encoding pseudogene, was isolated by screening a human library. A sequence of 3004 bp, containing the GS coding region and both the 5' and 3' flanking sequences, was identified that exhibits all the characteristics of a processed pseudogene. The coding region shows 93% identity with the human GS cDNA (hGS) sequence and contains two frame-shifts and two termination codons. The coding sequence is flanked by a 9-bp AT repeat and a putative polyadenylation site, AATAAA, at the 3' end. Primer extension analysis and S1 nuclease mapping showed a transcription start point (tsp) 62 bp upstream from the start codon indicating a shorter untranslated region than hGS. Transfection of HeLa cells with cat constructs containing portions of the 5' flanking sequence showed the presence of a functional promoter/enhancer within 200 bp of the tsp, independent of its orientation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Line
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA / analysis
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic / genetics*
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase / chemistry
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase / genetics*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Liver / cytology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Pseudogenes / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • DNA
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/U08626