Caffeine and smoking: subjective, performance, and psychophysiological effects

Psychophysiology. 1995 Jan;32(1):19-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1995.tb03401.x.


The effects of caffeine and smoking on cognitive performance, subjective variables, heart rate, and EEG were assessed in two sessions. In one session, subjects received caffeine (2.5 mg/kg bodyweight), while in the other they received placebo. In both sessions they smoked a cigarette (8 cued puffs) having a nicotine yield of 1.2 mg. Caffeine produced an increase in self-reported muscular tension and tended to increase anxiety and delta magnitude. Smoking facilitated performance of a paper-and-pencil math task and increased heart rate. Smoking also appeared to produce cortical activation as indexed by decreased right frontal delta, decreased right centro-parietal theta, globally increased alpha, and increased centro-occipital/decreased posterior-temporal beta 1. Smoking also increased central/decreased posterior-temporal beta 2. Smoking and caffeine did not interact for any measure, suggesting that the epidemiological link between smoking and coffee drinking may have a non-pharmacological basis.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Arousal / drug effects*
  • Attention / drug effects*
  • Brain Mapping
  • Caffeine / pharmacology*
  • Cerebral Cortex / drug effects
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Synergism
  • Electroencephalography / drug effects
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine / pharmacology
  • Problem Solving / drug effects*
  • Smoking / psychology*


  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine