The effects of caffeine and smoking on cognitive performance, subjective variables, heart rate, and EEG were assessed in two sessions. In one session, subjects received caffeine (2.5 mg/kg bodyweight), while in the other they received placebo. In both sessions they smoked a cigarette (8 cued puffs) having a nicotine yield of 1.2 mg. Caffeine produced an increase in self-reported muscular tension and tended to increase anxiety and delta magnitude. Smoking facilitated performance of a paper-and-pencil math task and increased heart rate. Smoking also appeared to produce cortical activation as indexed by decreased right frontal delta, decreased right centro-parietal theta, globally increased alpha, and increased centro-occipital/decreased posterior-temporal beta 1. Smoking also increased central/decreased posterior-temporal beta 2. Smoking and caffeine did not interact for any measure, suggesting that the epidemiological link between smoking and coffee drinking may have a non-pharmacological basis.