CD is an immunologic disease of the small intestine which is precipitated by ingestion of wheat gliadin. Most patients carry the HLA-DQ (alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201) (DQ2) heterodimer. We recently reported that a preponderance of gliadin-specific T cells from the small intestinal mucosa of DQ2-positive CD patients were restricted by this DQ heterodimer. However, a small percentage of CD patients do not carry this DQ heterodimer, and most of them instead carry DQ (alpha 1*0301, beta 1*0302) (DQ8). Here we report that a majority of gliadin-specific T cells from the small intestinal mucosa of a DR4,DQ7/DR4,DQ8 heterozygous CD patient are restricted by DQ8. Thus, preferential presentation of gliadin-derived peptides to T cells by the CD-associated DQ2 and DQ8 molecules may be an initial and important immunopathogenic step in CD.