A survey of the chairmen of pediatric radiology departments in children's hospitals in Canada and the United States was undertaken to gain data on the subject of malpractice in pediatric radiology. Sixty-two members of the Society of Chairmen of Radiology in Children's Hospitals (SCORCH) were surveyed. Forty-two surveys (65%) were returned for analysis. Malpractice premiums paid per pediatric radiologist per year ranged from $499-$29,000 (mean $8,630). Twenty-eight malpractice claims were reported from 1980 to 1992. The largest number of claims involved gastrointestinal/abdomen and chest examinations, areas that were perceived as low risk by the respondents. The incidence of lawsuits against pediatric radiologists in the midwest was statistically higher compared to Canada (p < 0.05). Private practice models had a statistically greater incidence of malpractice suits compared to university practice models (p < 0.04). No statistical difference between the number of malpractice suits and the number of examinations performed per year or the number of pediatric radiologists in the group was found. We concluded that pediatric radiologists run the risk of malpractice claims. This data may aid in lessening this risk in the future.