Objective: To determine the accuracy of the Lindstrom surgical nomogram for astigmatism.
Design: A prospective multicenter study.
Patients: One hundred sixty eyes of 95 patients underwent astigmatic keratotomy in eight centers by nine surgeons. Inclusion criteria for the study included age of at least 18 years with 1 to 6 diopters (D) of naturally occurring corneal astigmatism and less than 1 D of lenticular astigmatism.
Interventions: A standardized astigmatic keratotomy surgical technique was performed on each eye. Surgical measurements were determined using the Lindstrom surgical nomogram for astigmatism.
Main outcome measure: The Holladay, Cravy, Koch vector analysis method was used to determine the change in refractive cylinder results. Refractive changes also are presented without vector analysis merely using the absolute change in refractive cylinder and axis.
Results: Multiple regression analysis was used to develop a mathematical model determining the factors predictive of the change in refractive cylinder. The significant predictors for the amount of astigmatic correction achieved were, in order of decreasing importance, the following: number of incisions (R2 = 30%), incision length (R2 = 16%), age (R2 = 8%), and gender (R2 = 2%).
Conclusions: Astigmatism is a two-dimensional measurement of both quantity and direction that is most appropriately analyzed with vector analysis. The original Lindstrom surgical nomogram for arcuate keratotomy used in this study is still quite useful although it tended to underpredict results for many patients, especially those having two incisional surgeries. Some older subjects having minimal surgery achieved greater correction than predicted by the original nomogram. The most important factors predictive of greater astigmatic keratotomy surgical effect are incision number, incision length, older age, and male gender.