Epileptic temporal and parietal cortices, removed from 6 patients with therapy-resistant (intractable) partial epilepsy (TRPE) during neurosurgery, were studied. Neurons (40-50 in each slice) in laminae I-VI and white matter were injected with Lucifer Yellow (LY). Samples were examined in a confocal laser scanning microscope (BioRad [Richmond, CA] MRC 600), and individual cells were scanned at 0.1-2 microns incremental levels. 2D maximal linear projection was used for overview. Frames (50-60) of scanned neurons were transformed into 3D volumes, using VoxelView software on a Silicone Graphics workstation, and rotated. All samples contained pyramidal neurons with duplicated apical dendrites, additional basal dendrites, or were misplaced in a horizontal position in the white matter. Rarely were such cells observed in normal cases. The relation between the observations and the disease is discussed. The attempt to simultaneously apply immunofluorescence was successful concerning synaptic vesicle antigens. This approach will be used for a detailed study of the synaptology of this disease.