Efflux pumps and drug resistance in gram-negative bacteria

Trends Microbiol. 1994 Dec;2(12):489-93. doi: 10.1016/0966-842x(94)90654-8.


The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria can only slow down the influx of lipophilic inhibitors, and so these bacteria need active efflux pumps of broad specificity to survive. Pumps such as the Escherichia coli Acr system and its homologs make Gram-negative bacteria resistant to dyes, detergents and antibiotics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Biological Transport, Active / genetics
  • Biological Transport, Active / physiology
  • Coloring Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Detergents / pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple* / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / genetics
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / metabolism*
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Mutation / physiology
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Coloring Agents
  • Detergents