Hope and social support as coping resources for adults waiting for cardiac transplantation

Can J Nurs Res. 1994 Fall;26(3):31-48.


Previous research has indicated that interpersonal support and hopefulness are important for people waiting for cardiac transplantation. However, little is known about their supportive networks, or whether support and hope are factors that enable coping during the waiting period. This study described the social networks of cardiac transplant candidates, and explored whether social support and hope contributed to effective coping. Thirty-one individuals in four Canadian transplant centres completed questionnaires regarding social support (Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire), hope (Miller Hope Scale), and coping (Jalowiec Coping Scale). Telephone interviews provided supplementary data about perceptions of helpful support behaviours. Study findings suggest that hope was the only variable that contributed to coping effectiveness (R2 = .41) and that respondents' social networks (primarily family, friends, and health professionals) were important sources of support. The data provide insight into the behaviours that transplant candidates find supportive and suggest strategies to maintain hopefulness during the waiting period.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Heart Transplantation / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morale*
  • Social Support*
  • Waiting Lists*