Congenital malformations in the frontonasal area: their pathogenesis and classification

Clin Plast Surg. 1976 Oct;3(4):573-609.


The observation of 235 patients affected by abnormalities in the frontonasal area, has led the author to reinvestigate this complex chapter of the human congenital malformations. A complete critical review of the literature has been made in order to find the possible correlations between the available cases and those previously reported and to establish a simple morphogenetic classification that may embody them all, even transitional forms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain / abnormalities
  • Classification
  • Cysts / classification
  • Face / abnormalities*
  • Face / embryology
  • Female
  • Fistula / classification
  • Forehead / abnormalities*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Morphogenesis
  • Nose Deformities, Acquired*
  • Orbit / abnormalities
  • Pregnancy