Clinical management of the avulsed tooth

Dent Clin North Am. 1995 Jan;39(1):93-112.


Treatment outside the dental office: Replant immediately after gentle washing if practical. If replantation is not practical, store the tooth in the best medium available. Storage media in order of preference are Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), milk, saline, and saliva (buccal vestibule). Water is the least desirable storage medium. Treatment in the office: Emergency visit; Place tooth in HBSS while exam is conducted and history is taken. Prepare socket for gentle repositioning of the tooth. Prepare the root. Extraoral dry time < 20 minutes: Closed apex--replant immediately after gentle washing. Open apex--soak in 1 mg doxycycline in 20 mg saline for 5 minutes. Extraoral dry time 20 to 60 minutes: Soak in HBSS for 30 minutes and replant. Extraoral dry time > 60 minutes: soak in citric acid, 2% stannous fluoride, and doxycycline and replant. Endodontics can be done extraorally. Semirigid splint for 7 to 10 days. (If alveolar fracture is present, rigid splint for 4 to 8 weeks). Suture soft-tissue lacerations, particularly in the cervical area. Administer systemic antibiotics (penicillin V potassium if possible) Chlorhexidine rinses and stringent oral hygiene while the splint is in place (7 to 10 days). Analgesics as required. Second visit after 7 to 10 days: Endodontic treatment: Tooth with open apex and extraoral dry time of < 60 minutes: No endodontic treatment initially. Recall every 3 to 4 weeks to examine for evidence of pathosis. If pathosis is noted, disinfect the pulp space and start apexification procedure. Tooth with open apex and extraoral dry time > 60 minutes: If endodontics was not completed in the emergency visit, start endodontics and follow apexification procedure. Tooth with closed apex: Endodontics should be initiated after 7 to 10 days. Careful chemomechanical instrumentation under strict asepsis. Splint removed at end of visit. Obturation visit: If endodontics was initiated 7 to 10 days after the avulsion, obturation can take place after short-term calcium hydroxide treatment. If endodontics was initiated more than 14 days after the avulsion or inflammatory resorption, long-term calcium hydroxide for 6 to 24 months, obturated when an intact lamina dura is traced. Restorations: Temporary restorations: Should be 4 mm deep. Reinforced zinc-oxide-eugenol, acid-etch composite resin, glass-ionomer cement. Permanent restoration: Placed immediately after obturation. Acid-etch resin and dentin bonding agents. Follow-up care: Twice per year for 3 years and yearly for as long as possible. Late complications are common.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dental Restoration, Permanent / methods
  • Dental Restoration, Temporary / methods
  • Humans
  • Periodontal Splints
  • Root Canal Obturation
  • Tooth Avulsion / therapy*
  • Tooth Replantation