Six children with neonatal cerebral infarction of the middle cerebral artery are reported. Seizures or respiratory distress were the initial symptoms. In some cases abnormal findings appeared earlier on EEG than on ultrasound. The EEG changes were concordant with the localization of the lesion. Ultrasound examinations revealed an echodense structure within the vascular territory, after a phase of appearing to be normal, highly suggestive of cerebral infarction. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan. Findings on EEG, cranial ultrasound and CT suggested that the stroke represented a late intra-uterine event. At long-term follow-up, six children had failed to develop normally for age and had become obviously hemiplegic as gross motor development proceeded. Four of the patients had developed epilepsy. These data indicate that the outcome of neonatal stroke may not be as positive as previously reported.